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# Further reading #
Negation as failure and Predicate Completion are discussed by Clark (1978). In the same volume, the Closed World Assumption was formally introduced by Reiter (1978). The approach to default reasoning by means of defaults and rules is due to Poole (1988). In (Poole, 1991), a more elaborate Prolog implementation of this approach is presented. (Sombé, 1990) gives a detailed comparison of formalisms for reasoning with incomplete information, using a single example.
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An extensive overview of different approaches to abduction and their relation to other forms of reasoning with incomplete information can be found in (Kakas *et al.*, 1992). The abductive meta-interpreter in {numref}`sec:8.3` is based on ideas from the same paper, as well as parts of the analysis in {numref}`sec:8.4`. (Mozetič, 1992) presents an efficient algorithm for the computation of minimal diagnoses.
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* K.L. Clark (1978), 'Negation as failure'. In *Logic and Databases*, H. Gallaire & J. Minker (eds), pp. 293-322, Plenum Press.
* A.C. Kakas, R.A. Kowalski & F. Toni (1992), 'Abductive Logic Programming', *Journal of Logic and Computation* **2** (6): 719-770.
* I. Mozetič (1992), 'A polynomial-time algorithm for model-based diagnosis'. In *Proc. Tenth European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, ECAI'92*, B. Neumann (ed.), pp. 729-733, John Wiley.
* D. Poole (1988), 'A logical framework for default reasoning', *Artificial Intelligence* **36**: 27-47.
* D. Poole (1991), 'Compiling a default reasoning system into Prolog', *New Generation Computing* **9**: 3-38.
* R. Reiter (1978), 'On closed world databases'. In *Logic and Databases*, H. Gallaire & J. Minker (eds), pp. 55-76, Plenum Press.
* Léa Sombé (1990), *Reasoning under Incomplete Information in Artificial Intelligence*, John Wiley. Also *International Journal of Intelligent Systems* **5** (4).